Finally, this effort is feeling conclusive, which I hoped for from the outset 2+ yrs ago. With the discovery of the socialist emergence from the "Jewish settlements in the Pale," the pure negativity of academic oligarchy the possibility of scientific rehabilitation in an aboriginal context. Cultural "fleshing" will continue with reprints of currently-relevant recently-historical experiences, often gangster, while "the Pale" experience is solidified upto present revolutionary efforts. The hope is to create a hinge with which to restore revolution as evolution after the excessively long period of oligarchic occupation -since 500BC.

Then, probably, the entire blog will be consolidated and "put to rest" with the first wikified writing about the occupy dialectic two years ago.

Instability: Property protection and collective punishment

The Israeli/Palestinian conflict has always been difficult because the United States has long offered a home for, and support to, troubled peoples, even in conflict with each other.  I looked for "a point of no return" at which peace became impossible, and it was early on, before the immigration of Jews after the Holocaust.  It is my view that the Jewish immigration could have "worked out," or at least been much better because of Judaism's advanced social and mutualist cultures --but it didn't.  

Objectively, two factors are blamed: property protection was leveraged to create a Palestinian proletariat by the eviction of long-term tenant farmers to create Jewish farms, and then backlash from that eviction led to collective punishment by an English "psycho-soldier," that punished not only the innocent, but allied Arab families who protected Jewish families from vengeful Arab mobs.

When I was researching Israeli communism (as I felt it had to be distant from the anti-Semitic Soviet Union), I came across Orde Wingate, a british psycho-soldier who trained the Haganah that became Israel's IDF army, including Moshe Dayan. The haganah included the original Inglorious Bastards who did their misdeeds after German surrender, and staged mock trials before murdering german soldiers, as Wingate had shown them by attacking entire Arab towns, including Arabs who had helped Jewish families escape retaliating mobs.

Collective punishment means taking the pain to the population, which is what the Ferguson looters did to that town (most were outsiders)

I was looking for a time when Jewish immigration might have "gone right" rather than resulting in gang attacks, terror, and counter-terrorism terror that continues right now: a "point of no return" to model how it could have been "done right" by looking in the past and modeling a potentially happy present.

That point was in the 1920s-30s when immigrating Jews started to run out of urban, say, apartments and needed to expand into the farmland. The JNF was buying farms from which Arab landlords evicted their Arab tenants pushing them into Ghettos and desperation. The JNF created the first Palestinian "proletariat" (who are people with nothing but themselves and their children to give to the oligarchy, today's increasing wage slave popuation)

Maladaptives among this newly-created proletariat were organized by defective dominants armed with Zionist material of the time that correctly predicted today's situation. They attacked Jews creating the current terror situation in the 1930s. Wingate organized retaliation that included terrorizing innocent Arabs including Arabs who had helped hide Jews from the mob. This defined the point of no return; and shows how collective punishment is racism.

If Wingate had not been an agent, perhaps the many humanistic/mutualist Jews could have figured out way for Jews and Palestinians to co-exist, as the World of the time had hoped they could (with British help)

From The Burma Campaign  By Frank Mclynn
While experiencing self-generating hate for Wingate as zombie-bashing, I am really looking here for values that can be applied to any conflict irrespective of nationality, leaning, or skin color. I think that the eviction of the Palestinian farmer-tenants is the key value, in other words: "property protection" The "labor green" initiative would be to transition tenants into owners, and further define property in terms of need rather than greed.

Support from the current situation "over there"
Support for this approach came an article about the current turmoil in Iraq and Syria.  As it comes to light that the Islamic State was organized in American Iraqi prisons in the last decade.  This article cites American rationalization for the practice as having been pioneered by "British in Northern Ireland" and "the Israelis in Gaza." This gives evidence to the hypothesis of a spread of "collective punishment" as contagion first inoculated by an the English "psycho-soldier" Wingate as an extension of England's racism against the Irish.  

Martin Chulov and Salaam Riazk, CLICK for article
Further, the article suggests that the US virtually appointed al-Baghdadi by making him the go-to for prison discipline thus making him the leader of the captured Iraqi "princes." Many of the prisoners were non-combatants rounded-up presumably as an extension of Wingate's collective punishment strategies to alter sociological behaviors didactically in ways that guarantee backlash.  The practice of making a dominant prisoner de facto leader is common in US prisons, as it is seen to make authorities' jobs easier despite structuring criminals in ways that crime cannot.  "Criminal enforcement" has remained fuzzy since the onslaught of cocaine culminating in the crack epidemic just after the Iran-Contra affair in the 1980s.

In the end, whatever strains and directions these contagions develop and take, they are all within an exceedingly simple model of neuro-sociological de-evolution.  Despite conflict between competing cultures, the disease remains the same and presents as universal barbarism as the final effect of the civilizing process.

Collective Punishment now in the Ukraine
The capital-oriented Ukrainian government may have to give up the rebel-held territories as it has successfully converted a really good thing, their rebellion, into a really bad thing, racism against ethnic Russians (towards "the Pale").  This is evidenced by the collective punishment of those still in the combat zone with the rationalization that if they were loyal Ukrainians, they would have left already.  It is preventing medicine from reaching hospitals, and food for the sick and elderly across front lines, say humanitarian groups in this article from the UK Guardian.  Russian Ukrainians who were neutral before are now, essentially, forced to support the now Russian-backed rebellion.  By cutting social support, the Ukrainian government is saying that they are no longer responsible for the area, that it is no longer the Ukraine.  Yet, they continue to fight purely for reasons of national integrity, which is obviously at low ebb.  Other articles also cite the Ukraine government's inability to organize its military, and neglects of volunteer militias fighting independently for it. 

The Ukrainian government's rationale for the neglect of its citizens is to "demonstrate to those people living in rebel-held areas how miserable life under separatist rule can be, and it is also based on an assumption that most pro-Kiev people have already left the region."

Interestingly, the article also uses the phrase "point of no return" to describe the situation, which parallels my writing in this article about how Arabs and Jews went into their vortex of hatred early in the 1930s rather than after the Holocaust, as most suspect.

Red, Green and Black in Revolution

A historical survey suggests that reforming the Left, or, at least, filling its shoes, requires an understanding of current Judaism. While the Russian revolution provides a tremendous model for abstracting revolutionary hypothesis, it leads to "the Pale," a region of Jewish settlement from the Baltic to the Black Sea that cannot be necessarily called one country or another as it has been in continual flux.

A second part will come soon with more depth on this idea with supporting references, but before that I will post reprints from the earlier 2000s inspired by Carl Rogers (humanistic, 1950s), Lewis Mumford (anti-authoritarian technic, 1930s) and my recent ideas about peace in Israel/Palestine.

Core ideas some of which are "transgenerational by proxy," with strong experiential support with specific memories show, actually, a lifetime of hard work preserving what is going to be gone soon.  An abandoned cemetery in the heartland of the southernmost wabanaki, the rockaways, reinforces the story in ways that I could not image when I initially took the pictures.  Two headstones in particular, that I could not find again, say that "these were really good people," and the next question can only be "what happened?|  Fotos are below.

Perhaps the last memory of this social culture was of a financial systems manager Teddy (from the old mainframe school), who told me that "the purpose of a corporation is to hire people."  "Holy f*ck," I thought, "a socialist here on Wall Street."  I cannot remember is last name, but from the pictures below of the important cemetery from "the Pale"  on Rockaway Blvd, I am going to guess Cohen. 

Jewish immigration to the United States in the early 1900s resulted in mutualistic, socialistic, pacifistic, and anti-racist culture that continued into recent memory as the civil rights and anti-Vietnam war movements and, no doubt, helped align the peace-oriented hippie movement towards an aboriginal, well, non-structure. Evidence of these socially-advanced characteristics in "the Pale" is evident in New York City artifacts, and may also increased the anger (and paranoia) of "white" oppressors such as Cossacks (early pogroms) and Nazis (final extermination) by organizing into non-spiritual socialism. This idea used two colors, white (royalist, capitalist) and red (socialist and communist); with this is the black of the non-racist anarchists (Ukraine insurrection), and also green that represents farmers, and perhaps forest dwellers that accompanied black. The green "color" comes as a surprise and is little-understood as greens were often illiterate and left little evidence. Green, as the current environmental newcomer, is culturally ill-defined and dominated by feminists who can be red, white, or black --but not all three. A native relationship with green supported by the pure-freedom of black makes more sense, that is to say, a much better abstraction, as it can include the new-world aboriginals who value individual freedom above other values.

A loving one from us has gone, a voice we love is still, a place is vacant in our home which will never be filled

I cannot and will not say that he is gone, He is just away

Also in the exploration mix is the history and ongoing conflict in Israel/Palestine. With this is a view into earlier history to attempt to find "brighter spots" in Jewish-Muslim relations, and there have been a few!

Over time, the situation does appear to have become increasingly worse probably because of the spiritual deprecation of society, perhaps because of over-civilization --the excess of control. For instance, as Christianity decayed into ritualized rationale for continued Roman-type control with colonialism, Islam actually came to Jews as relief. This relatively new relationship has decayed over centuries, of course, and the view here is that of Oedipus: the "over-civilized" king killed his father and raped his mother to become the barbarian. Decay, corruption, or perhaps de-evolution (devo), seems a predictable outcome for control-based didactic structure, but, still, its last gasp always results in incredible pain usually including genocide. All culture, Jewish and aboriginal included, requires equal treatment or perceptions will be culturally-biased.

Capital, above all, is implicated as devo as it is so reliant on control, propaganda, punishment, and  killing animals (unnecessarily) for protein  --if not people for control and annexation. Its economic basis is in live-stored protein, livestock, and accounting, stocks and bonds internally-defined (by Adam Smith and libertarians) as "natural human greed." By its "white" definition, it suggests its own solutions: vegetarianism and social/mutual support motivated by empathy replacing capital cruelty and greed. In this trajectory, the colors become useful in defining restorative functionality: "red" (modernizing civilization towards social support, and thus socialism), or "black" returning to the basic human values from millions of years of evolution, the moral empathy from Darwin's natural affection between mammals (and other animals).


  • György Stiffel Well, I regret not to be a native speaker of your language. Excuse my bad English. Your conclusions may be the right ones but you have forgotten the complexity of European and near East cultural evolution. Everything was/is depending on the other and there was/is coherency. The evolution of the North-American post immigration culture is only the - excuse me please - perversion of the European and Near-East ones with the same coherency (Europe - North America - Europe - Near East). Do not try to blame the religions of that region because than you have to blame the oriental (Indian) religions first. Please note that I am not religious.

  • John Bessa Thanks, as always, for your golden input (Au, ;)) -- you are so correct about perversion, but i have to hold on that because the culture is out of control, not just self-isolating, but applying ancient Jewish laws against others who have done them no wrong and probably support them.  This no doubt relates to problems in the Middle East, from all perspectives.  In this case, the Holocaust is still foremost in the NY Jewish mind, so I need a strategy that makes a wide circle around this wound, or social disruption. To do this, I am viewing genuine socialism (not bolshevism or capital/socialism) as a product of Jewish religion in the same way true Christianity is in the context of the Proletariat, which is universal for "wage slave." I grew up in the Jewish Left in NYC fighting US capital in Vietnam and anti-Black racism, but recently learned that the Israeli Right was actually leveraging the Jewish Left against "enemies" of the Jewish expansion (capital) such as Blacks living in Brooklyn neighborhoods now controlled by Azerbaijani Hasids.

  • Descriptions of the Shtetls (village ghettos) before the Holocaust show a purely mutualistic culture, descendents in NYC are purely materialistic -- something happened that cannot be changed. But (!), it appears that many Jews left the Shtetls to bring mutualism to the other "thinkers" such as Kropotkin, who wrote Mutual Support, the manual of Green/Black thinking in the Odessa anarchist revolution.

  • There is no doubt it influenced socialist thinking, and thus communism, though communism rejected socialism at the outset (Anti-Duhring by Engels) for dictatorship. Those socialists with the Bolsheviks, not to mention anarchists, did not read Marx and Engels because if they did, they should have known what was coming (their deaths in the purges: anarchists 1926,, socialists 1938 approximately)

  • By removing the problem with communism/socialism which, is Hegel's anti-Abstract, I feel I can use this three color abstraction to model the meaning of Red as civilized mutualism (government support for the Proletariat), and Black (with Green) to dismantle capital to restore an organic human economy where politics are social interaction (original meaning of party). This actually how it was for us during the successful rebellions during the 60-70-80s but then, suddenly, all was washed away, apparently, in March 2000.

  • The US is rebelling against police brutality which is the final decline of civilized capital (caused by the excesses of consumerism that requires police brutality to maintain wage slavery. The youth are probably looking for a revolutionary model, when they need an EVOlutionary model: a way to move to the next step, which is a restoration of what is natural. From my 70s experience, I feel that this evolved model has always been there in the Jewish Left as a result of the Eastern European experience, but needs to be better defined as a universal (ab)originality. I have much evidence, especially the "hippie" Rainbow Gathering culture, which is an (ab)original restoration that is vegetarian and non-capital yet nearly purely-Indian (who are not vegetarian and often embrace capital)

  • Rainbows have Jewish influence, as the Eastern Rainbow is in Woodstock, NY, in the "Jewish Alps," the Catskills. There are expansionist Jews at gatherings, who will leverage racism at the first opportunity, but remember, the are neurologically or metacognitive-ly disordered and organized as paranoid hate, and thus antithetical to the Jewish mutualism that I am finding in pre-Holocaust Eastern Europe.

  • Freud defined Western psychology, and is considered core to Western Jewish thinking (despite being a cocaine addict) but is not part of this picture. The hypothesis is that the mutualist evolution that emerged from the Shtetls to become socialism came from poor villagers and developed in ghettos. I live in a ghetto that happens to be largely anti-Semitic (but not anti-Black) so maybe you see how this thinking can save MY ghetto, making me politically valuable to the local Proletariat.

Capital I, II and III

Capital I, II and III (and now cap zero) a small town in Kenya in 1986, an AK-47 cost fifteen cows but that in 2005, the price was down to four cows... 
(Moisés Naím)

Capital I 
Feudal annexation of tribes and public domain
* counting cow heads (capo, accounting)
* killing farm animals for the joy of "the lord"
* sacrifice of "animal friends" for survival, pleasure of "the lord," where ritual of sadness becomes "ritualized" to the point of human "sacrifice" (for the pleasure of the lord, Abraham and Issac)

Capital II 
Modernity, ca 500 BC
* accounting becomes relational table
* application of relational table to empirical monopolies by
* Aristotle and Hippocrates
   ** biles (fantasy explanation for personality, mood, etc) put into table by aristotle
   ** accounting, philosophies grab medicine and math as
   ** "physic" (physics and physcians)
* dialectic becomes paedophilia
   ** socratic method of aristocratic mentoring
   ** societal information control through abuse of the king
   ** aristotle applies method to Alexander the Great, first modern empiricism

Capital III 
Current, repeat of Capital II with Hegelian "revolution" that popularizes oligarchic philosophies through rationally-reduction, or "dumbing down"
* dialectic becomes metacognition
* socratic method becomes "human as object" psychology
  ** Ayn Rand and liberatrianism
  ** David Koch and tea party
  ** CBT, Aaron Beck
  ** agricultural statistical system (land plot, chart plot) becomes empricism
* feminist same-sex abuse replaces gay-chauvinist as "gender equality"
  ** passes under radar through churches, temples, etc
* banking transaction becomes sole resource forcing creation of
  ** complication system to maximize transactions
  ** feminine synthesis to assure surplus waste
  ** consumer economy, and
  ** information society absurdity (smart phone)
* vegan terror implemented as "rationally violent out" for when
* "we the people" (demo) finally figures this out (Restoration I)

Capital Zero
This was discovered as aboriginal corruption creating a link between the "happy time" of the natural state to feudal annexation and human capital.  In the example below, rebel aborigonals called warriors seek to overthrow government supported, often democratically elected, chiefs they see as corrupt (as many are due to poverty).  In short, they proposed the same economic plan as ISIS, though minus the perversions of Islam, of course.  Instead, they offered the "rules of their ancestors" which is total BS, because aboriginals have no rules, rules come with civilization!  They invited me into their conspriacy they call a "clan" which I, of course, threw directly in their faces.  I did so in a really funny way, but unfortunately I refreshed the page just as I got blocked from it, so all the text was gone: I did a really good Trotsky imitation as part of the performance art of Labor Green.

Beyond Capital III (which is feminine and service-dependent, especially on the police for protection and policy enforcement) is Capital decay that capitalists and oligarchs will revert to Capital I, the breast-beating feudal/tribal stage.  The hope here, of course is a true restoration of the evolutional and original psychology of the aboriginal, with its preventative and spiritually-supporting medicine.

A little history: this model was inspired by the "transaction" model of "tribute" collection to make a roman diffuse network (Lewis Mumford) appear "economic" and beneficial, conversion of simple abstract structures into complication resembling spaghetti to assure endless transactions.  "Revolution" (really a restoration of evolution) abstracts complications in organization into structured and manageable units complexity by deconstructing the transaction rich chaos of complication (for resisting pipelines).

Better than meat (in numbers)

I say it funny, "I wouldn't do anything I would not ask someone else to do," so this is not a vegan attempt, but vegetarian in the traditional sense because what makes sense is a reduction in meat rather than the absolute expectation of abstinence that vegans demand.  So, I am not vegan. 
Three in ten people smoke, and smoking kills one in three, so 10% of people die from smoking.  But, smoking is not the biggest killer, heart disease is presumably from fast food-type meals.  It is hard to get emergency care sometimes as heart palpitations are given highest priority and heart-disease patients are so common.  Yet patients continue to treat bacon as a vegetable --and laugh about it.
This writing, so far, is not typical of me --I am usually obsessive about rock-solid supporting scientific material so as to create a dependable knowledge base, but, in this case, my personal experiences combined with common knowledge assure beneficial outcomes.  For the moment, bigger questions exist: for instance, "is meat somehow addictive through the "savoury" taste bud called umami?" Also unusual is my use of the Wikipedia, which I edit often, but do not trust.  In the end, I will feel compelled to construct pure, accurate underlying science, so you can probably hold your breath.
Sacrifice is linked to meat, as in animal and human such as in Mezzo-America.  Selling a beloved old car, for instance, to help with child expenses, would be a sacrifice in the sense that I constructed when reading Mumford's Technics and Civilization were humanity and domestic animals evolved together while constructing an empathic model for human evolution in the context of the anborignal/animist emotional relationship with Nature and its animals.  For aborginals, killing animals who live in the nearby woods and are thus something like pets or even friends is highly traumatic; extensive spirituality has been created as therapy to allow aboriginal families and tribes to survive.

A second sacrifice type emerges that I experienced in an urban church only recently after ten years of absorbing "country" religion (deliberately) in the aurl/oral tradition.  This sacrifice story was, of course, about Abraham, God, and Abraham's son Issac.  One might extend this to God's own son, Jesus on the cross!  The Issac story was presented in the context of "radical" obedience, which I instantly related to capital control.  Despite various rational and religious treatments, this is about human sacrifice apparently as an extension of animal sacrifice for a "higher-up," the Lord.  It is important to me that I never heard this story from either of my mentors, Pastor George Hart and Major Laverne Fudge, but from a higher-up in a church oligarchy.  Further, both Hart and Fudge are adamant that Christ "liberated" his band of Jews and Gentiles from a ridiculous rule-set found in the older section of the Bible.  This idea can be extended to the infamous human sacrifices of Europe's northern pagans, mass sacrifices being beneficial (and thus altered in definition) for those in control at the expense of the mass of normal, average people.  In terms of cattle, necessary muscle for farming is sacrificed for meat-joys.

A major social issue (for me that is delaying supportive-evidence construction) is the "logos," or logic, of meat.  This is to say that there appears to be a "cattle -> chattle -> capital" continuum that is evident everywhere from accounting to African tribal oligarchy.  What is disturbing (in this context) is the idea of "human capital" especially since which Western academic (Socratic) education is based on it (and probably Asian Confucianism as well).  This is to suggest that the "human object," as Ayn Randian objectivists (through Adam Smith) describe it, is, essentially, meat.  If so, vegetarianism (but not vegan-ism) is liberation from not just oppression, but some form of capital cannibalism that, as far as I can tell, is only described in one place: Cree culture.  (I favour vegetarian over vegan because I see vegans are absolute, and thus vulnerable to criticism as having a "personality disorder" not different from concrete thinking, which is said to lead to bigotry.  I simply want to make humanity more humane while extending each human's life ten to twenty years.  (Supporting links will follow soon.)

Value of a protein source to humans on a simple scale from 0 (low) to 1
Below this table is other nutrient material which has not been linked in such a way as to compare meat with other protein sources, but, presumably from common wisdom, vegetables and seafoods make better sources

  • This index gives value to foods in terms of their protein quality based on both their available amino acids and our ability of us to digest them
  • 1.00 is very high, and 0.50 is moderat

  • Soy protein
  • Egg white
  • Milk protein
    • casein
    • whey
    • etc
  • A synthetic protein created through the fermentation of a fungus, Fusarium venenatum.  Eggs and seasoning make it resemble meat; trade secrets often keep the process and ingredients secret.

big gap
0.91 - 0.75
Various raw legumes
  • Soy beans
  • Chick peas
  • Black Beans
0.75 - 0.70
  • Fruits
  • Vegetables
  • Cereals
  • Whole wheat
  • other grain derivatives


Essential Amino Acids
Proteins that are absolutely necessary for our nutrition that cannot be synthesized from other proteins

Histidine (H)
  • eggs
  • legumes (pulse: pea, lentil, fava bean)
  • soy protein
  • sesame
  • cheese
  • peanuts
Isoleucine (I)
  • eggs
  • legumes (pulse: pea, lentil, fava bean)
  • soy protein
  • fish
  • soy protein (tofu)
  • meat
Leucine (L)
  • eggs
  • legumes (pulse: pea, lentil, fava bean)
  • soy protein (tofu)
  • sesame
  • fish
  • cheese
Lysine (K)
  • eggs
  • legumes (pulse: pea, lentil, fava bean)
  • soy protein (tofu)
  • cheese
  • fish
Methionine (M)
Cysteine (C)
  • eggs
  • legumes (pulse: pea, lentil, fava bean)
  • soy protein (tofu)
  • sesame
  • fish
  • peanuts
  • mustard seeds
Phenylalanine (F)
Tyrosine (Y)
  • eggs
  • legumes (pulse: pea, lentil, fava bean)
  • soy protein (tofu)
  • sesame
  • fish
  • peanuts
  • cheese
Threonine (T)
  • eggs
  • legumes (pulse: pea, lentil, fava bean)
  • soy protein
  • sesame
  • fish
Tryptophan (W)
  • eggs
  • legumes (pulse: pea, lentil, fava bean)
  • sesame
  • winged beans
  • chia seeds
Valine (V)
  • eggs
  • legumes (pulse: pea, lentil, fava bean)
  • soy protein (tofu)
  • sesame
  • cheese
  • meat


Other essential nutrients
Directly from Wikipedia: Essential_nutrients

Fatty acids

Essential fatty acids cannot be synthesized by humans, as humans lack the desaturase enzymes required for their production.

    α-Linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3), an omega-3 fatty acid
    Linoleic acid (LA, 18:2), an omega-6 fatty acid

α-Linolenic acid is not used by the body in its original form. It is converted by the body into the required long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6). EPA and DHA can also be consumed from a direct source by consuming fish, fish oil or algal oil (vegetarian source).

Linoleic acid is not used by the body in its original form either. It is converted by the body into the required long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids gamma-linolenic acid (GLA, 18:3), dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DGLA, 20:3) and arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4).

Omega-9 fatty acids are not essential in humans, because humans generally possess all the enzymes required for their synthesis.


Carbohydrates are sugar molecules and chains of sugar molecules. No individual carbohydrate is an essential nutrient in humans.[4] Glucose can be synthesized from amino acids and glycerol, which is obtained from fat metabolism, by de novo synthesis (called gluconeogenesis), but in insufficient quantities to maintain normal brain metabolism.[citation needed] However, the body can adapt to this state by producing ketones (a state called ketosis) to fuel the brain, which can only use glucose and ketones for fuel, unless carbohydrate stores are repleted.

  • A (beta-carotene)
  • B1 (thiamin)
  • B2 (riboflavin, vitamin G)
  • B3 (niacin, vitamin P, vitamin PP)
  • B5 (pantothenic acid)
  • B6 (pyridoxine, pyridoxamine, or pyridoxal)
  • B7 (biotin, vitamin H)
  • B9 (folic acid, folate, vitamin M)
  • B12 (cobalamin)
  • C (ascorbic acid)
  • D (ergocalciferol, or cholecalciferol)
  • E (tocopherol)
  • K (naphthoquinoids)

Dietary minerals
  • Calcium (Ca)
  • Chloride (Cl−)
  • Chromium (Cr)[5]
  • Cobalt (Co) (as part of Vitamin B12)
  • Copper (Cu)
  • Main article: Copper in health
  • Iodine (I)
  • Iron (Fe)
  • Magnesium (Mg)
  • Manganese (Mn)
  • Molybdenum (Mo)
  • Phosphorus (P)
  • Potassium (K)
  • Selenium (Se)
  • Sodium (Na)
  • Zinc (Zn)
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